cross-roads.ru: | English | Russian
It's my dream, it's my art, it's my life. With love, Elena Balina
"Russian armors X-XVII enturies"
"The retro automobiles"
"Furniture basic styles"
"Old Russian manuscript illumination in the History Museum Moscow"
"Art objects in Tin made by Russian craftsmen"
"Russian jewellery from the Hermitage"
"Iranian textiles 16th-18th centuries"
"HISTORY OF CLIPPER "CUTTY SURK""
Library HISTORY OF CLIPPER "CUTTY SURK"
HAPPY ERROR OF THE OLD WHITE HAT
It went 1870-1 yr. Already yr as was opened for the passage it was ship the Suez Canal, per 3000 miles the reduced way to the east to the steamships (sailboats, naturally, use it we could not). One after another it is slow, but correctly crossed oceans high(ly)-tube steam brigs and barks, izvergaya into the sky the clubs of smoke. Foresighted shipowners packed capital only into the vessels with the mechanical engine - steam engine; their ever more numerous steamships (in the last 20 years the tonnage of steam fleet it increased 8 times) became the terrible force, which inexorably displaces sailing fleet.
And here in this stormy time "Cutty Surk" left in the first floating - its, as speak Englishmen, maidenly voyage. The clipper, intended for the transportation of Chinese tea, was truly miraculous the perfection of ship forms, the apex of the centuries-old development of sail armament. Looking at it, it cannot be to assume that this splendid ship even on the stocks was anachronism that the shipowner made an explicit error, packing money into building of sailboat. Yes it did be worthwhile to give self up for the gloomy reflections, when the deck of the new clipper, which swiftly runs with the tailwind, rocked under the feet! Under the stem boiled up pearl foam and, slipping is lengthwise onboard, it merged with the wake jet, this flickering track it were pulled to many miles, being unnoticeably dissolved in the boundless spaces...
But was in prospect snachalo to traverse two oceans 16 000 miles to Shanghai, then so many on the way conversely. This meant, at least, three and one-half of month to rush without the united approach into the port there, in order not to be late not in order during May, when tea of new harvest they bring to the moorages, to arise for loading first, and then the same three and one-half, if we not all four, month hurry ourselves with the load conversely in order to somewhat more rapidly deliver tea for the London market. This meant four times to intersect equator, twice to be stormy on the entire "length" of the Atlantic and the "width" of the Indian Ocean, to twice go around the cape of good hope, not randomly called in the old times the cape of storms, to fight with the typhoons of the exotic of Javanese and: Chinese seas, to contrive to preserve control into the calm...
"Cutty Surk" - three-masted tea clipper - was built in the Scottish town To dumbartone (on the river Of klayd, near the glasgow) to order of the well-known London shipowner of old John Willis. His father was also shipowner, and therefore John obtained the proper training: so that he would master the profession of seaman, him without the excess conversations another boy they sent in the sea. Now in John Willis was numerous clippers, among which were separated by the excellent seaworthiness Of "lammermyur" and "tvid". He understood sense in the ship- racers, many years itself walked by captain on its clippers and by entire soul it hated "the smoking sky" steam vessels with their noisy machines and crowd of dirty stokers. The as yet far from perfect machines, which devour an enormous quantity of coal, were established on the steamships of those times. Their owners relied on the fact that some new form of fuel will be invented during one excellent day or new, economical machines will appear, thanks to which their vessels they will get rid of the need for conveying on themselves the exorbitant reserve of coal. But Willis and other "conservatives" persistently asserted that nothing similar occur it can, that neither boiler nor machine cannot be improved, but any trouble compulsorily falls with the Suez Canal - most probably, it simply it will carry by silt. And then let us look, they did declare Willis and his associate - will know how London market to manage without the sail ships? Oceanic wind - which nothing costs! - it was and remains the eternal motive power. And it is unwise to reject it for the expensive and capricious mechanisms, which devour far from cheap on the seaways fuel-...
Giving the order of shipyard "Scott and Linton", old Willis straight-away burnt with optimism. Reason to that was the unexpected boom, raised on both sides of the Atlantic: almost simultaneously proved to be gone down to the water of approximately dozens of excellent clippers. Similar not long ago it was already! Famous company "loks of Line" recently ordered immediately four clippers - "splendid quartet". Aberdeen "White Star of Line" built the first clipper with the iron housing "patriarch". Their famous clipper Of "fermopily", built with year earlier, recently completed its per -ky1 voyage in Melbourne in 60 days. This was the record: in 60 days of almost 15 000 miles! Two months clipper went with an average speed of 10 it was main! (not one owner of steamships is daring to dream about this voyage. Itself the 10- main speed of fantastic no longer seemed, but steamships expended on the approaches for inspecting coal - bunkering - so much time, which in the way would be necessary to support much higher, thus far unattainable speed.)
Willis consumed by envy cherished dream, that his future clipper will be achieved the best result. In Melbourne in 60 days? But why not for 55? And Willis started to dictate to young and talented designer Hercules Lintonu his conditions. It is necessary to emphasize, it pursued the obtrusive idea - to create ship, capable of being the first among all. To the horror of ship-builders obstinate customer required to take as the model of the circumscriptions of new clipper the housing his of old "Tvida". "tvid" was sufficiently uncommon vessel. It was built as steam frigate "Punjab" for the east -Indsko1 of company. Willis contrived to purchase steamship cheaply, he sold his machine for 10 000 pounds, and housing somewhat lengthened and converted into the sail vessel - clipper.
Young Of Linton, probably, did not obtain special satisfaction from the visit of "old white hat" (thus they called John Willis for the inexplicable predilection to the white, irreproachable cleanliness to cylinder). And it was from what hesitate in thought. "tvid" appeared by powerful and solid vessel with the massive stern. To the view of those, who most of all valued in the circumscriptions of ship the refinement of Arab jumpers, the dear creation of Willis resembled the ukhozhennuyu dray horse. But this was the surprising vessel: despite Pa massiveness, "tvid" went sufficiently easily. Why? There was here something from the happy chance. Above the fact how to reproduce this chance, and broke now the head Of linton. In any case, and he has the firm intention - to build first-class vessel.
However there it was, one feature Of "tvida" found concrete expression in the housing "Cutty Surk". This exactly that stern itself - powerful stern, little similar to the usual kliperskuyu stern. It is necessary to say that clipper were constructed already almost quarter of century, to disregard accumulated experience was riskovanno. He knew well from other side, Linton that even to the most nautical clippers the greatest danger presented the following gale wave. Not it was nothing more terrible than depart from the storm. Control of ship - steering control and compass, watch assistant and sailor- autopilot, yes even everything which was located aft, it underwent in this case a constant danger to be eroded outside. Steering vynuzhdepy were tie to the steering control, even the random view, be casten for the stern, forced heart to die in the horror! (running in forward, let us say that also on "Cutty Surk" autopilots tied to the steering control, although it is rare.) But indeed powerful stern would serve although some as protection from the following wave...
Finally, after thinking over about this, young Of linton was penetrated by respect for strange customer.
Company did everything so that the clipper would become masterpiece. The stipulated by contract price of building "Cutty Surk" was equal to 21 pound for the ton; however, for creating the masterpiece of this sum clearly it did not be sufficient. Only best material went in the matter: outstanding iron, the self-possessed tree - selected elm, tick, red pine tree. But entire good, as is known, costs large money... Firm "Scott and Linton" left the matter (workers it became something to pay) and it became bankrupt, without having had time to arm excellently assembled and gone down to the water on 22 November, 1869, housing.
The clipper, finished building by already another firm - other masters, on according to the drawings Of lintona, was by no means the copy Of "tvida" or any of another vessel. This was the ship, which enraptured experts, but, perhaps, no one it occurred, which to new clipper is judged in exactly the same manner to enrapture real seamen and one hundred years later, when its contemporaries disappear into the past, but the epoch of the bloom of sails will become the same distant and vague as the times of the middle ages.
"Cutty Surk" on the Scottish dialect literally indicates - short woman's shirt. This of narrative in Robert Burns's verses "Tam O'Shenter".
What to speak, strange name! In those years of law court bore the sonorous, imposing names, for example "herald of dawn", "morning fairy", "blazing cross", "lord of seas". On both sides of the Atlantic the shipowners competed in the selection of grandiloquent names. Indeed and to byvalym seamen and to passengers, who are gathered with the entire family somewhere for the ocean, more greatly took to heart ships with the "reliable" names, similar "Korolev colonies" or for the "chariot of glory". Among this collection "short shirt" it appeared absurd, but, nevertheless, seamen and merchants it is unexpectedly rapid of privykli to the strange name, obviously and because it is easy to pronounce it.
Wooden female figure on to the nose of clipper, that depicts the heroine of people legends and respectively the poem of Burns - N3n-Short- jacket, was excellently made by master f. khel'er from Blackwell. Descending by folds the sufficiently long clothing of beauty passed into the breakwater on the stem, and witch- profligate unexpectedly obtained appearance almost Ancient Greek goddess. Old white hat he was bachelor and was not experienced constraint in the means: it not only generously paid Khel'eru, but, after thinking, it ordered to it the even whole group of the exposed beauties a little less by size.
The kingpin - Nenni with the elongated hand in the swift impulse pursued the fleeing tam alloy Of o'Shentera, which was depicted on top of its gray mare meg on the carved lock, which decorates bowsprit. Composition caused any kind the senses: many attempted to explain, what history hid itself behind the selection of uncommon subject. The lengthened hand and the head of the nose figure several times were lost during it was gale, but immediately they were restored, although the new work increasingly more was inferior to the work of Heler.
"Cutty Surk" was decorated richly. Housing gleamed by black as jet-black by paint; curvature - sheer - deck was emphasized by two superimposed on board lines from thin sheet polota. With the same gold were covered the letters of the name clipper and of the home port (London), and also pattern - interlacing of garlands from laurel leaves. The center of stern composition was that cut out from the tree "star of India" with the significant inscription in the circle: "celestial light ukazuyet to us way". Under the star stood in beauty the firm sign of old Willis - letter W in the rays of the ascending sun. New clipper at the end of January of 1870 arose for the inspection of general load in Shanghai. His first captain was George M'yudi, that deserved the favorable attention of Willis even in the role of assistant to "tvide", and then which floated by the captain of other two his clippers. As captain "Cutty Surk" he was appointed immediately after the laying of vessel on the stock (incidentally, it crossed clipper with the descent its wife). The experienced eye Of m'yudi, thus, could follow each piece of tree, intended for the building, and the operation. It is interesting that 40- summer M'yudi was considered oldish for the designation Pa the new clipper: it is no secret that the life on the clippers was severe and stressed, but control of them - by most difficult matter!
Thus, "Cutty Surk" finally left into its first voyage, but gentle breezes and annoying small emergencies pursued clipper almost on entire way into China. The installation of masts and rigging was usually carried out by shipyards without the thorough trimming. This tiresome and tedious, fine limit work, and tarry of sails, was conducted during the first voyages. Even the well urged standing rigging, being drawn out under the load, weakened, it should have been covered so that each tackle would perform its role in the complex system of the rigging of vessel. This took away considerable time. However that may be, "Cutty Surk" did not establish the expected record, was not obtained reward for the rapid delivery of load. It covered distance from London to Shanghai in 104 days, after yielding to the clipper Of "lal", which spent on the same way 98 days.
"Cutty Surk" was possible to obtain charter to the transportation of tea of new- harvest into London on the freight rate of 3 pounds 10 shillings for 50 cubic feet of load '. And this was not too badly, because the chief competitors of clippers - steamships - recently delivered the sequential impact: unexpectedly for many they demonstrated the ability - to reach London in 60 days. In vain the supporters of sailing fleet predicted, that stokers will mow the infernal work into the heat on passage by the Red Sea! The Suez Canal also "did not justify hopes", but bunkering firms without the delay supplied steamships with coal in Aden, Colombo and Singapore. Saved sailboats the fact that remained still numerous experts, who declared, supposedly tea loses its qualities in the iron holds of steamships under the action of evaporations and smoke from the stokehold, it begins to smell of anthracite and bilge water.
New clipper was immersed and without the delays left in the sea. It, of course, not had the hope to prove to be the first on the market (perhaps that all steamships would take off to air!), however, M'yudi it was full of the determination to pass its associates. "Cutty Surk" completed this passage in 110 days, after showing best, than the majority of tea clippers, result. However, "fermopily", that left with the same load To fuchzhou, find in floating only of 105 days! Certainly, to compare the duration of the voyages of these two it would be ship more right, if they both left simultaneously one port, but this served as poor comfort.
Old Willis threw thunders and lightning. After being armed with enormous magnifying glass, it thoroughly studied ship periodical "Cutty Surk", but it revealed not one error in the actions of captain. And nevertheless its new vessel did not place record! Willis did not interest the fact that the clipper forced was to maneuver entire long journey to the strait the probe (following not it was, but counter continually they were changed by protracted calms), in the Indian Ocean it fell into the storm and even was passed the English channel (let us add, and it flew into the thames!) almost with the hurricane wind. To m'yudi it began to complain, that to it it does not convey.
upward to the menu
HISTORY OF CLIPPER "CUTTY SURK"HAPPY ERROR OF THE OLD WHITE HAT
ON TO BRINK THE LOSSES
WOOLEN VOYAGES OF THE CAPTAIN OF WUDJET
Calculation of displacement to CUTTY SURK
Theoretical drawing of the clipper
Construction of the housing
Diagram of the general layout
Device of the clipper
Diagram of the wind-resistance area