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"Russian armors X-XVII enturies"
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Library Russian armors X-XVII enturies
Science of ancient Russian armament has a long tradition. It's was beginning in 1808 yr from the time of discovery helmet and maille in the place of a famous Lipitsk battle (1216 yr). Helmet ("shlem", "shelom" - rus.) and hauberk ("kol'chuga" - rus.) are belonging possibly to Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. In the 19 century, historians and specialists in the study of ancient weapons A.V. Viskovatov, E.E. Lenz, P.I. Savvaitov, N. E. Brandenburg attached considerable importance to the collection and classification of military equipment. They began decoding its terminology, which included words as a European, and Asian origin. In the XX century Soviet researchers A.V. Artsihovsky, B.A. Rybakov, B.A. Kolchin, F. A. Medvedev, M.G. Rabinovich, M.M. Denisova, N.V. Gordeyev successfully continued and deep substantiated the tradition of studying military affairs and arms Russ (Old name Russia) IX-XVII century. They dedicated their works explore means to protect and attack, as it were made and distributed. They drew attention to ways to combat old Russian warriors. The evolution of weapons they were seen as a phenomenon that is closely linked to the economic base of society. In the case of weapons-focused achieve a better production and creative efforts of many generations of Russian artisans. In terms of the number harvested and preserved in museum collections weapons - not less than 8000 articles (not counting the many arrowheads) - finds medieval Russia have an international scientific importance.
Armament, battle tactics, the whole strictly military affairs have passed a number of stages in its development of IX to XVII century.
In IX-X centuries a new set of weapons of war was formed and has undergone gradual changes over the next centuries. Young state has put forward numerous and heavily armed army, equipped with all kinds of then-offensive and defensive means. Detachments-shelves appeared on the battlefield. They have fought rules on certain tactical battle in an organized manner.
Fighting mainly infantry fought in the early years of the Kiev Power. In X century (the middle and second half) to the first plan had become cavalry. This is due to incremental pressure southern neighbours Russia (nomads) and what happened the final formation of feudal society organizations. Later cavalry is divided into light (archery: "luchnik" - rus.), and hard-armed (spearman: "kopejshchik" - rus.). Principal weapons rider - spears, bows and arrows, sword and the sword.
The growing dominance of cavalry does not mean that the infantry does disappeared. In equipping infantrymans also often divided in archery and spearman, especially popular was the axe.
In XII - the first half of the XIII century pace of development of military equipment is quicker. In the XII century begins gradual burdensome rider and infantry weapons. At this time there is a helmet with a full face closing half-mask and circular "barmitsa" (maille on the helmet that protects the shoulders and neck warrior), massive long sword, a heavy sword with a long cross-half and sometimes handle. About strengthening protective clothing to attested spread in the XII century reception ram-strike spea. Enhancement equipment was not so significant, as in Western Europe, as this would make the Russian Warrior slow and turned it into a correct target for the steppe nomads.
Initially, at the Ancient Russ word "armour" to designation only fighting clothing warrior (without helmet). All equipment warrior named this term has become later. Maille ("kol'chuga") held undisputed first place among combat coatings a long time. It has been used with the X on the XVII century.
Just in Russia was adopted protective clothing from the plate, but it has not prevailed until XIII century. Plate armour existed in Russia with IX on XV century, squamous - with XIII on the XVII century. Squamous armors were special elasticity. In the XIII century, extends protection to a number of reinforcing the body parts: "ponozhi" (from the Russian phrase: "po noge" - on the foot), knee-pads ("nakolennik", from the Russian phrase: "na koleno" - on the knee), "zertsalny" (from the Russian word: "zertsalo", "zerkalo" - mirror) breast plate, "naruchi" (from the Russian phrase: "na rucke" - on the hand).
In the year 1237-1241 at the Russ struck hordes of Batu Khan. Winning has slowed down the development of the country, but not suppressed the autonomy of Russian military affairs, and only contributed to its accelerated progress. Military changes of the time characterized by the increasing importance of infantry, the growing use of long-range fighting (bows "luk", cross-bows "samostrel, arbalet", slings "kamnemet, prascha"), and accelerated transformation ringed protective clothing in the plate.
In the second half XIII-XIV centuries kept ascending from the pre-Mongol period, the development of pan-European line Russian weapons. There were: a sword piercing, a sabre are curved more than a century earlier, a system typesetting armour finished, distributed triangular shield, axe-club, "shestoper" (the head "shestoper" consisted of metal plates-feathers: staff "shest" + feather "pero" = "shestoper"), cross-bow. Along with the traditional helmet of spheroconical shape, is the use of low a dome-shaped helmet - spiked helmet "shishak". The firearms appeared about 1380 in Russia. However, traditional edged weapons near and distant battle has kept its value. Pike, cudgel "rogatina", helmet, shell "dospeh", round shield, club "bulava", flail "kisten'", "shestoper" remain in service with virtually no significant changes between the use of firearms, over two hundred years.
IX with on the XVII century, nine centuries master armourers Russian cities worked on the development and improvement of the offensive, defensive weapons.
The rich and armament was stimulated by a heroic feats and military glory of Russian soldiers who have for centuries advocating freedom and independence of their homeland. Unfortunately, colorful edition devoted Old Russian armor and weapons, are rare. Attempting to fill this gap and aims at the unit cards. Moscow artist Vladimir Semyonov, already known for his illustrations in "The word on the shelf Igorev", as well as postcards series on the history of Moscow, this time addressed to the Russian armour. In his works, he seems to have galvanized the last page, depicting Russian warriors in their familiar environment, in the colorful and reliable combat decorations.
Of course, the work does not pretend to have it seen as a scientific manual or handbook type, the task of another - possibly to show greater and more diverse ancient Russian armour, provide a fine material, which is so lacking all those who love Russian history and culture.
A. Kirpichnikov, the doctor of the historical sciences
(Not too good translation into English - Elena Balina ;))).
Russian armors X-XVII enturiesIntroduction
hauberk and lamellar armor. X-XI the century
helmet with the the barmitsa. X century
hauberk (schema of production)
armor is scaly. XI century
the splitting weapon
helmets. XI-XIII century
armors from the plates and the scale
warrior. XII century
hauberk. XII-XIII century
the chopping weapon
helmet with the half-mask and barmitsa. XII-XIII century
armor is lamellar. VIII the century
archer. XIII century
the impact weapon
armors. XIII-XIV century
arbalest. XIV century
the missile weapon
kolontar'. XIV century
baydana. XV century
kuyak. XVI century
swords and the sabre
yushman. XVI century
chaldar (horse attire). XVI century
archer. XVI century
tegilyay. XVI century
bakhterets and tarch. XVI century
zertsalo. XVII century
rynda. XVI-XVII century
ceremonial armors. XVII century