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BASIC STYLES OF THE FURNITURE

Entrance
the furniture of ancient Egypt
the furniture of ancient Greece
the furniture of ancient Rome
the byzantine furniture
the romance style of the furniture
the Gothic style of the furniture
the furniture of the renaissance
the furniture of the baroque
the furniture of the rococo
the furniture of the classicism
the furniture of the style of late classicism - "empire style"
the furniture of western Europe of the XIX - the XX of century.
the Russian furniture
RUSSIAN FURNITURE
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Russian furniture in its development passed in essence the same historically prevailing styles as European furniture. But in the Russian models are always felt large originality, originality of the treatment of form and finishing of article with the development of their national nature.

In ancient Russia the furniture was created by people master- skillful individuals, for the elongation it was age-long manufactured very convenient forms and constructions, which were being transferred from generation to generation and which were preserved in private life (especially in the peasant furniture) to THE XIX century. Furniture was tightly connected with the architectural planning of accomodations, it frequently was incorporated in in that accurately diverted by it place.

The basic objects of the situation of dwelling were benches, benches and stools with the square or round seats, borne the name stul'tsa or chair. Open regiments for the dishes, the wall or confronting on the floor cabinets, the massive tables, supplied with boxes or boxes. Chairs and armchairs were encountered rarely. Benches and benches were made by fixed (along the walls) or movable; they were intended not only for the seat, but also substituted for bed. Benches were with the backs and without them. Backs were sometimes made by reversable and were called the seine (bench then it were called peremetnoy). Trunk in the situation of Russian dwelling appeared more lately.
Furniture was decorated with through and deaf thread, by the propyl patterns, different by the profiles, sharpened by the columns, which repeated the forms of Russian architecture, it were covered with painting. In the ornamentation animal, plant (grass) and geometric motives predominated.
In the church furniture very diverse candle boxes were basic form.
The furniture of Russian baroque and rococo, connected with remarkable architect rastrelli's names, in its forms and finishing repeated entire wealth of the architectural forms of buildings.
In the XVIII century in Russia they began to manufacture iron furniture in Tula, but its production was very small and models entered in essence only the palaces. Were manufactured chairs, armchairs, benches simple on the form, but sufficiently heavy and rigid. These things were characterized by the unusually thin, filigree working of details, through ornament with the incision of gold and silver, bright "diamond" faces, which form present metallic lace of high artistic quality.
The Russian furniture of the second-half of the XVIII - the beginning of the XIX century was connected with the architecture of interior, accurately repeating the basic elements of the architecture of the classicism, which creatively uses antique architectural forms. The objects of situation are characterized by ease, strictness and simplicity. They were convenient on the form and not overloaded by adornments. The meager, well studied profiles and finishing repeated the ornaments of modelling and painting of walls and ceilings.
Chairs and armchairs of classicism have excellent rounded lines and profiles, which resemble antique models. They were done taking into account the proportions of the figure of man.
The furniture of Russian classicism can be divided into two groups - according to the form, the nature of finishing and using the material. The first group - is palace, ceremonial furniture. It was created according to the projects of the most important Russian architects - A. n. voronikhina (furniture for the palace in Pavlovske), K. i. Rossi (furniture for many palaces of Petersburg), Giacomo kvarengya, V. p. stasova, Domenico zhilyardi et al. This furniture was carried out from the expensive materials in the capital workshops. Important master- furniture-makers at this time were Gambs also of fucoids.
 
Petersburg master gambs worked in Russia approximately since 1790 to the 60's the xix century it it was court mebelytsikom. Firm Gambs continued by its son.
Stage was master -krasnoderevqem and it worked together with Gambsom.
 
The second group - furniture is everyday. It made in essence on the projects of fortress masters in the same strict, highly artistic principles of classical architecture. It filled landowner's estates and urban houses. Small furniture workshops were in Petersburg, Moscow, short heavy horse and landowner's estates, such, as Arkhangel'sk, Ostankino, etc.
Masters created their original solutions of the numerous objects of situation, soobrazuyas' with the taste of customers and with their knowledge of working tree, enriching furniture by people skill. The names of the talented master- furniture-makers are known: Zenina, Nashchekina, Sidorov, Utochkina - in Moscow, Ivan rudina, Andrey Fedorov - in the short heavy horse.
As material for the furniture in essence served birch, nut, poplar and ash, which were finished almost always under the fashionable then mahogany. In the 70's of the XVIII century in Russia for preparing the furniture Karelian birch was for the first time used. This is the important contribution of Russian masters to the world skill of furniture.
The distinguishing feature of the objects of the situation of that time were all possible mechanical devices - secret boxes with the imperceptible springs, which are folded, which are been outstanding with the turnings of individual parts, by the entire system of bolts and services, up to the tiny musical tools, which fulfill entire operatic overtures. Under the conditions of fortress labor they were not considered the time, spent on the production of object.
Transitional style from the classicism to the empire style in the Russian furniture bears the name "Pavlovian", although it was much longer on the time than the reign of Pavel I, which was being continued from 1796 through 1801. Pavlovian furniture - large and massive on the form. Its decorative finishing with the large spots of ornament against the smooth background in essence of mahogany or Karelian birch emphasized the massiveness of object. A certain theatrical exaggeration of the forms is inherent in the nature of ornamentation: shaggy eagles, whimsical griffins, heavy sphinxes shape heavy architectural- monumental sekretery, chests of drawers, tables.
Even in working of Pavlovian furniture, and then later, with Aleksandr I, on the production of the objects of situation oshchushchalos' the influence of the French furniture of style empire style. The large planes of mahogany, the clear and straight forms of objects were emphasized by the introduction of the thin copper strips, which border them.
This furniture is introduced in France by furniture master Jacob (style Jacob).
Russian empire furniture has its completely original solutions in comparison with the models of European empire style. First of all Russian furniture is much more monumental. In its dekorirovke together with the classical ornaments are used the motives of Russian ornaments. Furniture is constructed in a strict subordination to the laws of architecture. Adornments and ornamentation concentrate in the specific places, leaving the large smooth surfaces of the polished tree. Instead of the bronze for finishing the furniture Russian masters use gilded thread on the tree or modelling from the gypsum and the levkas.
The diverse objects of the situation of style empire style filled palaces and estates of landowners, the urban houses of the bourgeoisie and merchants. The models of empire furniture can be divided into two groups: ceremonial - palace and more intimate everyday (Russian bidermeyer). At this time were widely disseminated the numerous versions of sofas, before -divannyx tables on one stone, armchair in the form of barrel or trough with the deaf back, cabinets, chests of drawers, hill, sekretery and new type of furniture - large mirrors within the rich framework. The objects of the situation of style empire style were characterized by the beauty of proportions and excellent fineness. But this furniture was somewhat dry, strict and inconvenient for the custom.
In the 20's of the XIX century the nature of interiors begins to change. Instead of the ceremonial suites of huge halls appear more intimate, smaller rooms - divannaya, tea, office, smoking room. Furniture becomes more comfortable. Appears thrust to the eastern furniture (20th and 30's), to the abundant draperies, to eastern soft sofas (sofas). In finishing of the furniture of mahogany the enthusiasm by Gothics was shown. Into mode enters soft (kutanaya) furniture, dwelling by quilted skin, by cretonne, by velvet.
 
Kretonovaya soft furniture was fashionable into 1870-1880 all possible chair forms and sofas they were finished by the complex system of upholstering, with the buttons, by muslin, by lace, by velvet with the fringe, the pendants, the suspensions, the pompons, this furniture was extremely heavy, clumsy, plain, unhygienic and fragile.
 
Toward the end of the XIX century the objects of situation repeated the furniture of the style of rococo, but in the simpler and heavier forms, firm Gambs introduced into the mode nut furniture with the simplified and generalized ornamentation of the style of rococo. More lately appear the things, in finishing of which eclectic are mixed up the elements of the different styles of furniture. Rooms are filled by heavy velvety draperies and mass of the small things: souvenirs, portraits, cheap pictures within the heavy gold framework. The forms of furniture become smaller, with the set of sharpened adornments, they color it in essence black. Arose mode to the furniture in the style renaissance. Its models in large quantities were manufactured at the furniture factories, but they nothing in common had with the objects of the authentic style of revival. In the beginning of the XX century the enthusiasm by ancient furniture appeared. The large furniture factories of Fisher and Schmidt in Moscow and Mel'tsera in Petersburg manufactured high-quality artistic furniture in the different styles at will of the customers - important bourgeoisie and of merchants. The style of modern did not introduce into the Russian furniture of any unique national features in comparison with the models of European moderna.

 
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