BASIC STYLES OF THE FURNITURE
the furniture of ancient Egypt
the furniture of ancient Greece
the furniture of ancient Rome
the byzantine furniture
the romance style of the furniture
the Gothic style of the furniture
the furniture of the renaissance
the furniture of the baroque
the furniture of the rococo
the furniture of the classicism
the furniture of the style of late classicism - "empire style"
the furniture of western Europe of the XIX - the XX of century.
the Russian furniture
FURNITURE OF THE STYLE OF ROCOCO (XVIII c.)
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The gradually magnificent and majestic style of baroque passed into the lighter, more capricious style of rococo, characteristic by the absolute absence of straight lines. Artists Jules oppenor, Claude Gillot and Jhst- Aurelius meyson'e from a distance the album of its sketches of furniture, contributing to the popularization of this new style. In France the furniture of the style of rococo is called the style of Ludovik THE XV outstanding master- furniture-makers - Kressen, bronzesmith Kafieri. This the furniture is elegant, is small according to the sizes, with the filleted corners and convenient for the use. The characteristic calliper legs, backs and arm rests, sofas were abundantly decorated with thread and bronze cover plates in the form of garlands it was color, plants, shells, which compose the unique figure of rokal'nogo ornament. The wooden parts of the objects colored in the bright tones - white, blue, green, they varnished and by places they gilded. Later bronze details in finishing of furniture replaced the varnishes brought from China.
The pillows, upholstered with silk material, were superimposed to the seat, the back and the arm rests of sofas and armchairs, it was color with the large bouquets. In the custom appeared the chests of drawers, whose front outline was decorated with Chinese lacquer or view in the Chinese spirit - with the pagodas, open bridges, towers, etc. - the decorative tables, richly inlaid. From the second-half OF THE XVIII century the objects of situation began to decorate with mosaic from the tree (master -krasnodereveq eben). Basic material for preparing the furniture were the tree of the homeland rocks - linden, nut, being easily yielded to fine and fine thread.
In the English furniture OF THE XVIII century were created the new, very convenient and beautiful forms, which were extended far beyond the limits of England and were preserved in the production of the furniture of the different countries to the present. In the creation of these forms of furniture the big merit belongs to remarkable master -krasnoderevqu Thomas chippendel' (1709 - 1779). Furniture production to Chippendelya find under the strong influence of the Dutch furniture (queen Anna's style), whose separate elements were borrowed from China: the calliper legs of chairs, armchairs, tables and chests of drawers in the form of the bird paw, which stopped up sphere, geometric, angular carved backs of armchairs and detail of cabinets with the open cross-beams of unique Chinese ornament.
From these elements Of chippendel' it began to arrange its furniture, giving to it the lighter, more elegant forms of rococo, improving its proportions and convenience. The models of the objects of the situations, created with it, were light and elegant on the form, with the convenient and beautiful proportions. In 1745 Thomas chippendel' izdayet management for the joiners with figures and drawings of furniture. The furniture Of chippendelya in contrast to French furniture of the style of rococo fashionable at that time was not colored and was not covered with gilding, revealing the game of the texture of wood. The wooden parts of the objects were covered only with wax or transparent varnish. Chippendel' introduced into the furniture production the valuable species of tree - red, lemon and other most common objects of situation were chairs with the lattice back, sofas -kanape (connection into one whole two or three armchairs), cabinets -sekretery, bureaus, chests of drawers with an enormous quantity of drawers, bed, etc.
In latter third OF XVIII century the nature of English furniture changes - the bent forms of the furniture Of chippendelya are displaced by the sharp, straight lines, characteristic for the architecture of classicism. Architect Adam, who visited Italy in 1770, by his works in the spirit of the classicism of Italy and France, which received in its projects unique, purely English nature, also contributed to the propagation of new style in the furniture. The furniture-makers -krasnoderevqy Of kheppl'uayt and Sheraton worked with it create new direction in the furniture with the clear, sharp lines of classicism. Management and projects with drawings and sketches of new furniture were published by it. After the style Of chippendel' in England there was the style Of kheppl'uayt, and then arose the style Of sheraton.
In the furniture Of kheppl'uayt were preserved still many curved lines in the backs and sofas. The furniture of the style Of sheraton had sharp, straight lines, very thinly traced details. Widely adapted the selection of the different species of tree on the color and the texture in the panels and the incrustations (marketri). Begin to create the kombinirovannuyu furniture - chests of drawers with the flap for the letter in the connection with the book cabinet and bureau- offices in the connection with the hill for the porcelain.
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