BASIC STYLES OF THE FURNITURE
the furniture of ancient Egypt
the furniture of ancient Greece
the furniture of ancient Rome
the byzantine furniture
the romance style of the furniture
the Gothic style of the furniture
the furniture of the renaissance
the furniture of the baroque
the furniture of the rococo
the furniture of the classicism
the furniture of the style of late classicism - "empire style"
the furniture of western Europe of the XIX - the XX of century.
the Russian furniture
FURNITURE OF THE EPOCH OF RENAISSANCE (XV-XVI c.)
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Beginning from THE XV century apartment houses increasingly more they are filled up with furniture but it yet it has no substantial changes in comparison with the Gothic. Predominates trunk- chest with the facade, decorated with base with the pilasters and cornice. Gradually from second-half OF THE XV century furniture begins to decorate renaissance with the details, characteristic for the architecture of style. The native land of style renaissance was Italy, where furniture production strongly developed. The well-known Florentine architects Bendetto and Giuliano yes Mayyano, former themselves by furniture-makers and by engravers on the tree, contributed to the bloom of furniture skill. They created the new forms of furniture on the proportions and the new type of adornments.
The artistic principle of the coordination of proportions in the architecture of early renaissance found its reflection, also, in the creation of the objects of situation. They begin to give great significance to the profiling of furniture. In the chests, which had the form of rectangular box, appear sharpened legs, their walls become bent and they are finished by thread with the gilding and painting, it adapts and intarsiya - wooden incrustation. In the painting of furniture important artists participate.
The most common types of furniture were chest (kassone) bench- chest with the back and the elbow-rests in the form of two sunduchkov (kassapanka), chairs of two types - on four legs and on two carved boards with the octagonal seats, bed - low, without the canopy, with the carved posts on the angles.
In the XVI century the new models of the furniture appear: bureau- desk, soft armchairs.
In Italy the excavations of the antique works of skills widely were conducted. Findings antique models had an effect on the nature of the furniture of Italian high renaissance. The objects of situation begin to decorate with the elements of the architecture: by pilasters, by columns, by entire entablement, by friezes, by cornices, by capitals, developed according to the templates of thin figure. Wide distribution obtained details in the form of lion paws, heads of rams, different masks, brackets and other attributes of antique furniture. The design parts of the things are disguised with decorative elements with the rich gilding, painting and mosaic from different species of tree. For the adornment on the panels of cabinets the promising constructed architectural views sometimes are created.
In the large cities of Italy different directions in working and nature of furniture were asserted. In Rome, sienna and Bologna the furniture with the coarse decorative thread was manufactured; in Lombardy and Venice used the incrustation from the ivory and the black and bright tree with the geometric patterns, that was called the chertozskoy mosaic (Chertoza-Paviyskaya - monastery not far from Milan): in genoa and Ligurii manufactured cabinet- bureau and postavtsy-kredentsy with the set of drawers and the doors, covered with relief thread. Nut was the most extended material for the production of furniture.
The new forms of furniture arose at this time in Holland. The lively trade of Holland with its colonies enriched the assortment of materials for preparing the furniture. Besides nut, Dutch masters began to use different exotic species of trees - black palisandrovoye tree, Amaranthaceae and pink Brazilian tree. The artist of de brize's Vredemen let out the special album of projects and sketches of furniture. From the Gothic constructions of master send to the architectural complex compositions with by strongly the developed to cornices, bases, by panels and by beaten columns.
The new type of chair and armchair with the legs and the backs from the beaten round rods, with the characteristic cubes at junction of individual parts appears. Backs and seats cover by the skin or gobelin and fasten to the tree by nails with the large caps.
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