HISTORY OF CLIPPER "CUTTY SURK"
HAPPY ERROR OF THE OLD WHITE HAT
ON TO BRINK THE LOSSES
WOOLEN VOYAGES OF THE CAPTAIN OF WUDJET
Calculation of displacement to CUTTY SURK
Theoretical drawing of the clipper
Construction of the housing
Diagram of the general layout
Device of the clipper
Diagram of the wind-resistance area
WOOLEN VOYAGES OF THE CAPTAIN OF WUDJET
Meanwhile captain Moore knew how to make sufficiently well sequential voyage into Australia with the general load and returned home, after going around the cape of Horn, for the first time with the load of fur. Willis somewhat was revived, when he learned, that him "To katti" reached Australian Newcastle in 79 days, and it returned - for 82. This was the better time of passage, in comparison with all other sailboats, which dispatch at the same time and by the same way. Rivals remained, some to two-three apparitors, others - for the month. No one wanted to believe that the old tea clipper could so walk! Solution was, obviously, in the fact that in the gale floatings around the cape of Horn, where other vessels forced were to diminish sail in order not to prove to be the crushed heavy waves, "Cutty Surk" with its powerful stern, low masts and by the intensive rigging easily bore a comparatively large wind-resistance area and it went well even with the following storm.' However that may be, in 1883 to captain and commands "Cutty Surk > > were brought congratulation, and owner nezhdanno-negadanno earned well at the auction of fur. The vessel, which first managed to the January auction, got rid of the need for paying for the storage of fur and, furthermore, was obtained "reward" in the form of the unconditional assignment to it of moorage under the loading-unloading to the following voyage, and right to approach without the turn meant several!
<<<On the quarter deck - in steering control "Cutty Surk".
"Cutty Surk" was advanced in the number of super-clippers, which fought for that in order to arrive in the port of unloading as early as possible, this was a question of their existence, this business required. Important value had race itself: victories gave advertisement and also brought benefit to shipowner.
"Cutty Surk", at long last, was rendered proper! The salient achievements in the woolen Australian voyages clipper reached with the captain Richard vudzhete. The first two floatings after the fur completed already Moore, Ostal'nye ten - Vudzhet; to all them accompanied "staggering", as they wrote then, business success.
Moore obtained from Willis to the content of clipper laughably little - 200 pounds per year. There was then a strange tradition, on which the captain had to add to the obtained sum of money from his own earnings. Captains willy-nilly became businessmen, they tried to use their position in order to make small business. They transported, for example, passengers, were occupied by the fact that during our days there is the smuggling: they cut out in by round rissole the well-packed vessel some space for "their" load (assortment it could be very diverse: liqueur, lady hats, thoroughbred puppies, etc.). Pensions in those times there did not exist, for captains it was necessary itself to worry about how they will live their century after withdrawal to the coast...
Wudjat to appeared the bright abilities, commanding one more of the very worst it was ship Willis: even on the 35- summer wreck "koldstrime" it taught to bring income. It deserved "Cutty Surk", and old white hat obtained dual gain.
As it was mentioned, Willis reduced the number of crew on his clippers by third, and furthermore, half of the remaining themselves members of command he began to substitute by inexperienced, but by free probationers. Almost all sailboats of that time were of their kind the closed educational institutions: according to contract with the shipowner the probationers worked and simultaneously were trained to the sea matter. Because of the fact that the captain Vudzhet, as it was explained, possessed unusual pedagogical abilities, 12-13- summer boys, who left in their first floating on "Cutty Surk", subsequently showed itself much better than others adult. By them it transported: them trained man, one name of which served as the best recommendation for the entering into the sea college. None of them in all these years ran out from the clipper, but indeed flights from the sail it was ship that time they were considered the matter usual (especially because in Australia young people had a prospect and earnings). But finally no one of them remained on the sail vessels: they departed one after others to the steamships. Unprecedented floatings around the cape of Horn were perfected, although it is difficult into this to believe, because of the boyish hands. Clipper they carried out their mission: they brought up first-class seamen for the steam fleet, created the force, which helped to accelerate the loss of their themselves...
Increasingly with more difficulty it was begun to justify Australian round-the-world voyages, but another work it was not located. For 10 years yearly "Cutty Surk" was located into the sea of approximately 5 months (approximately 70 days to Australia and 80 days conversely around the cape of Horn), the pair of weeks assumed general load, is less than in the month of plummet fur. All the remaining time departed to the expectation of the load: vessel stood month after the month in the Australian ports. Not there was possibility to make an additional voyage, without risking in this case to miss fur, it was not possible and to reduce crew. It is necessary to still have in the form that any sail ship, which goes without the load, could not manage without its substituting fixed ballast ("Cutty Surk" assumed 460 t), which and by itself cost money, even if this was stone or sea sand. Finally, it was worthwhile money to pack and to remove ballistae. Work with the ballast, naturally, was laid on the probationers; experienced seamen in that period was counted on board not more than eight people!
Passed the days of the misfortunes, which there is no time were brought down to the vessel. It vudzhet it contained clipper in the outstanding state and he excellently commanded it, accomplishing express floatings. "Cutty Surk" that time carried out them so good that old Willis, who did not lose obtrusive idea, planned to make one additional attempt to beat "tea" record. In 1886 he again sent "Cutty Surk" into Shanghai after the tea. For the last time! It delivered into China scrap metal (this transportation it cost nothing!). As one would expect, tea for the clipper it did not prove to be - they in vain stood here four months. In order not to be late after the fur, it was necessary in the ballast to go to sydney. Thus, the records Of "fermopil" (from the thames to Melbourne - 60 days, from Melbourne to Shanghai - 28 days, from Shanghai to the thames - 91 days) so remained unsurpassed!
Then on the woolen line "Cutty Surk" did not know the equal: it are the officially registered in Lloyd's offise records during the floating from sydney or Newcastle to the thames - this 67, 69, 70 days. It was here conquered and but known to that of the defeats Of "fermopily"! In 1887. "Cutty Surk" delivered fur in 71 days, to 8 days after passing "fermopily" and to 18-20 days - average of clipper!
<<< Today in the hold "Cutty Surk". The exhibition of nose adornments is ship XIX of century from long John Silvera's collection - captain J. S. Kambers
WAY Into THE IMMORTALITY
But all this - race, gale passages, victories - proved to be useless. Old Willis forced was to acknowledge in to this at least to himself. The transportation of a small quantity of load cost increasingly more, increasingly more intensively they were displaced clipper - already, also, from the Australian lines - by powerful steamships with the usovershenstvovannymi machines. And although "fermopily", sold into Canada to five years, still placed records in the trans-Pacific Ocean trade and two famous rivals continued to fight with each other, days of both were considered. Finally both vessels were sold to lissabonskim shipowners. "fermopily" it became training ship "Pedro Nunez" of Portuguese VMF, while "Cutty Surk", in 1895 renamed into "fereyru" - on the surname of the new masters of the brothers Of fereyra, still many years transported loads in the Atlantic waters.
Again and again fought clipper with the violent storms. Control again lost and hundreds of miles it went with the emergency steering gear. During the storm in the waters of the West Indies "fereyru" it rejected to the sand-bar, but, in spite of the pessimistic predictions, vessel satisfactorily descended from it, after obtaining only insignificant damages. The high-quality made housing remained in the excellent state. Clipper completed still numerous transatlantic voyages - from Lisbon or Oporto it walked to Rio de Janeiro, to the coast of West Africa, to the islands of green cape. From time to time it occurred also on the native land, attending Liverpool, cardiff, London...
<<<Nose adornment of one of the "heirs" "Cutty Surk" - training sail ship sagresh (Portugal). Photos from the journal Morze.
During May 1916 in it is coast South America "fereyra" it were deprived of masts. To restore complete armament was dear, clipper they re-armed barkentinoy; nevertheless its light and graceful housing went well also with the reduced wind-resistance area. For "fereyre" it was possible to pass by unharmed through all dangers, which was on the watch it in the First World War. But time went, floatings of the old vessel, which stands on the threshold of 50 - anniversary, became increasingly more shortly, although the Portugese tried to contain the former clipper as possible better.
Since 1922 "Cutty Surk" proved to be unable to justify its existence in the eyes of shipowners. Ship was too small, but it had too great a sagging and it could not call at shallow ports, it bypassed too dearly in order to convey on it the loads of the skin or guano. Was said postwar depression. With such sad circumstances, when vessel, ending its last voyage, stood in the moorage in Falmute, and masters decided how to enter with it further, to it randomly focused attention one British captain, who once floated on "To katti Sark": with captain it was brought to pass on it not one voyage under the command Of vudzheta. Such is not forgotten! And here now it did not believe to its eyes, learning in the neglected old sailboat once splendid clipper. Neither strange name nor strange flag nor painted aboard false cannon ports could lead him into error. After estimating its possibilities, Doumen decided to purchase the renowned vessel, which meanwhile left into Portugal, and to try to preserve it. On the happiness the price did not prove to be excessive (3750 pounds), it became owner "To katti Sark" and it towed away it to the native shores, again in Tyuey falmut. Doumen restored clipper, after converting it into the training ship. Into its plans it entered to equip clipper with the complete complete set of sails itself to leave on it to sea with the future captains. Death interfere withd carrying out a wonderful dream.
<<< Difficult it was to learn in neglected barkentine with the painted ports proud clipper. Photograph of 1922.
The widow of captain presented vessel to sea college, also, in 1938. 38 clipper with the the old Vudzhetom on the bridge towed away from Falmuta to the location of college - into the thames and made fast on the barrels next to the renowned training ship "uorchester". On this stand as the training mother ship it was during the entire II world war, repeatedly was located by Pa of the face of loss - German aircraft roared above it, bombs all around fell, the languages of fire rose.
It there remained until the special created society of retention "To katti Sark" is made a decision about its transformation into the national monument. On 10 December, 1954, clipper completed quite last voyage - small passage on the thames to the area of eternal parking in Greenwich. During the flow they introduced vessel into the ferroconcrete foundation area of 6- meter depth, and when water was shrewd and the clipper of villages to the advanced under the bottom keelblocks, cross connection they sealed.
The proud inscription appeared on the end wall of the dry dock: "here remains" To katti Sark "as the monument of its time as the tribute of respect to people and to the ships of the epoch of sail".
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