HISTORY OF CLIPPER "CUTTY SURK"
HAPPY ERROR OF THE OLD WHITE HAT
ON TO BRINK THE LOSSES
WOOLEN VOYAGES OF THE CAPTAIN OF WUDJET
Calculation of displacement to CUTTY SURK
Theoretical drawing of the clipper
Construction of the housing
Diagram of the general layout
Device of the clipper
Diagram of the wind-resistance area
In spring following 1871 clipper, after healing wounds, again departed into China. And, certainly, Shanghai port was already entire in the steamer to the smoke: this steamships took away the lion's share of the tea prepared to the sending. Year ago the first two steamships Of "dayomed Of agamemnon" and "erl King" in exactly the same manner intercepted tea and brought him into London. Many buyers still as before with the fastidiousness became accustomed to the smell of the tea unloaded from them; however, true authorities on the official test could not distinguish the tea, brought by steamships, of the tea, delivered by clippers. And here now the result: takeing into account the large duration of voyage, to clippers they proposed freight lower than to the steamships: pitiful 3 pounds for 50 kubofutov!
This freight literally shook Willis: this was half than to opening of the Suez Canal! But indeed steamships proved to be profitable and with such freight rates, on top of that walked to China repeatedly in the year as clipper, but twice, but that three times. But, as it was explained, almost their main advantage was regular timetable. Clipper still they rushed along the oceans and no one deprived of their possibility to pass each other, but it already little interested foresighted businessmen, which of the clippers walks more rapidly; it much more important it was previously accurately to know, when arrives their load or when vessel for loading precisely arises.
In 1871. "To katti Sark", following with the tea into London, passed cape North -Forlend on 107-1 days of floating, i.e. I could not substantially improve the result, shown in the first floating. Did not succeed this, also, subsequently - during the subsequent years of tea voyages. Willis, using old acquaintances, still taught to obtain for "To katti Sark" load in Shanghai so that the vessel in the ballast would not be necessary to chase, but also here it left, for example, so that instead of the obeshchannykh 72 days the floating continued for 108. But here owners "fermopil", manifesting enviable scent, again and again was sent its ship not into China, but into Australia. (in the Australian voyages to steamships it was with more difficulty survive the sail vessels: on entire passage from Durban to Frimantla there was not one bunkering station, frequently steamships forced were to crawl under the sails!)
In 1872. "fermopily" it arrived in Melbourne in 67 days - to the week later than into its first and best voyage. And nevertheless this was the bright path! When after this finally "Fermopily" proved to be in the moorage in Shanghai simultaneously s "To katti Sark", the captains knowing the matter began to bet, looking forward interesting contest. Now- that could take place the kliperskiy voyage of century, great tea voyage! Ships cost each other. "fermopily" there was somewhat larger. On its calculation there was more than records. Any emergencies aboard this ship appeared rarely, in contrast to "To katti Sark", and, which is important, to it to the surprise it conveyed with the tailwinds. The captain of this Aberdeen clipper Of kembol was known as exceptionally experienced and fearless navigator; it has the first-class assistants, the stable command, in which all to last kambuznika were full of the determination to win race.
"To katti Sark" up to this moment was also well completed by crew. And on its board each was confident in the success: not in a long time before this they to the week went around (with the load of tea) famous "Ariel", then they sufficiently easily conquered universal favorite "sir lanselot".
Thus, both ships left Shanghai simultaneously and soon burn into the thick fog, in which dispatch about three days. (in seamen it is considered as the poor sign to begin floating from the fog!) Contest was passed with the variable success, thus far with the output into the Indian Ocean "To katti Sark" not postiglo the misfortune: during the storm the clipper lost control, only miraculously survived masts.
It is possible without the exaggeration to name the 8000- mile oceanic passage of the heavily loaded mutilated clipper exploit. This in general a comparatively small vessel, which frequently whipped by wave even in the favorable weather, during this memorable storm almost completely it was immersed under the water. Storm was very heavy even for those stormy latitudes. Sail it tore up into the shreds by hurricane wind, but they immediately overhauled and again raised them in the place. The powerful impact of wave turned inside out wooden control from the hooks. It began to rock ship helpless before face of the infuriated element so, as if it was assembled to overturn. The rotations of foam rushed on the deck.
Near at hand it did not prove to be the suitable material, then captain M'yudi ordered to use spare masts. Should not have been to drive on no one. After hammering together the certain similarity of control, it they extended by ropes under the stern, and meanwhile M'yudi feverishly considered - as to make a control, more similar to the present. The most complex matter was, perhaps, the production of new iron hooks - the pintles, which would be put into the loops on the sternpost. On the happiness, the accepted onboard in Shanghai ticketless passengers proved to be one - by ship carpenter, and another - by blacksmith. Without the excess words they undertook the matter and worked without tiredness. Waves poured the improvised smithy, continually bringing down from the legs of blacksmith and his voluntary assistant - probationer, son Of m'yudi. The brazier, complete incandescent coals, it overturned to the breast of youth; the blacksmith, whom hardly it did not wash off outside, obtained the strong burns of hands, and nevertheless they finished their work...
"fermopily" it was stormy by several hundred miles in front, and when it it reached English channel, Kembol it was already confident in the happy for it outcome of race. Naturally, to it nothing but was known about that occurred on "Katti Sark" emergency. When by several days is later "To katti Sark", "limping", it entered into the thames, captain kembol stared eyes, uslykhav, that its rival went from the gale ocean with the emergency steering gear...
For M'yudi of that occurred it proved to be more than sufficiently: it left "To katti Sark" and generally sail vessels - it left to the steamships.
<<< Only photo "To katti Sark" in motion. Photograph is made by a captain R. Wujhet.
The withdrawal Of m'yudi forced old white hat to be moved emotionally: increasingly with more difficulty it was begun to seek out experienced captains. The rare combination of the set of qualities was required from the captain of clipper. It had to have the iron nerves and the force of will, possess the ability with twenty-four hours to manage without sleep, not to think about leisure in the course of the long months, to resist any kind temptations. It had to have the brain of General and limitless commercial abilities. It had to be the captain- sailboat, which has available the perfect knowledge in meteorology and oceanography, captain- ship-builder, by captain- businessman... M'yudi transmitted command by clipper F. To v. Moore, who to that fulfilled in Willis the responsibilities of marine manager. Moore was excellent captain s grow prettier by reputation, but too for a long time he did not step to the captain's bridge. It completed on "To katti Sark" only one circular floating. After leaving London on 26 November, 1872, with the general load aboard, already on 11 February, 1873, it returned anchor in after leaving London on 26 November, However, another clipper - "Thomas Stevens" swam off nedoley later, and he arrived in Melbourne during the same day (to him it transported: it avoided storm in the English channel!). Melbourne law court they left simultaneously and send with the load of coal in Shanghai. In the transportation of coal participated not less than dozen first-class clippers, so that compulsorily all this was very similarly to the race. "To katti Sark", after accepting about 1200 t of coal, nursed through the southwestern part of Pacific Ocean and the coral sea, passed the eastern bank of Philippines islands, then the chain of Ryukyu islands and on 41-1 days of way it made fast in Shanghai (on two days after outdistancing "fermopily"); however, "khellouin" and "duen Of kestl" made the same path still more rapid - only in five weeks. Coal was heavy load for the clippers; massive stern "To katti Sark", heavily settling into the water, impeded motion with the light breeze.
In that year famous "sir lanselot", "Titania", "fermopily" and "To katti Sark" knew how to obtain in Shanghai the load of tea and was planned the gripping tea voyage with the race - in spite of the sensibly folding opinion about the advantage of regular steamer transportation. As one would expect, steamships outdistanced sail fellows already in the southern part of the South China sea, since it was "nevertheless", what monsoons of yellow pear during this period. But weather proved to be extraordinarily fierce, winds - contrary, and it remained no hope to confirm byluyu turnip to tatsiyu of tea clippers in the Chinese voyages. Not there was possibility; to go around this region externally, after placing the additional of sail - studding-sail. (generally, studding-sail was rendered aid, faster, purely moral. Work with them was heavy and dangerous, and during strengthening of wind they only became interference. Artists, depicting on the pictures the sailboats under all sails rushing in the heavy weather, including, etc: by studding-sails, they sin against the truth!)
"To katti Sark" again ugorazdilo to fall into the typhoon, and again it successfully otshtormovalas', but it was rejected back and reached An6er- Ci -dola only 12 days after there it was "fermopily". Captain kembol wrote down into the ship periodical, that the passage "was executed lustrously, as always, independent of the direction of monsoon". Moore reached relatives it was coast on 117-1 days; "fermopily" it stood here already two weeks. Record placed "khellouin", which passed the same distance in 90 days. True, it left into the voyage four months later, when already yellow pears are favorable monsoons. Let us note that the experts never discussed tea voyages without the reference of the time of the year, in period of which the vessels were passed as the South China sea: it was obvious injustice compare the voyage of the ship, which easily ran with the tailwind, s,; by floating other, that was being battled with the contrary monsoon for the elongation of 2 000 miles. Lloydovskiye insurers did not in vain pay out the high rewards to those, who risked to swim into the unfavorable time. "To katti Sark", for example, obtained the increased freight - 4 pounds for 50 kubofutov, while "khellouin" - only 2 pounds 10 shillings.
Moore replaced U. ye. tiptaft - seaman the one knowing, but not had the talent of the true captain of clipper. Tiptaft of povel "To katti Sark" into sydney, after which the transportation of coal into China furthermore was planned. The owners of sailboats related to this load with the great hatred, than to steamships themselves, but business is a business! Worse there was that tea in Shanghai did not prove to be. In order not to lose time, send the agents of Willis to the risky step: after paying off big enough money for towing of clipper per 600 miles upward on the yangtze, was directed it into Ukhan'. Tiptaft, after accepting here tea of new harvest, sat up by spirit. Dangerous region it successfully crossed by the lightest way and it nevertheless arrived to London only in 118 days. And again "fermopily" outdistanced it to two weeks: this terrible Kembol accomplished on it last voyage!
After unloading tea, "To katti Sark" immediately again took course on Australia and completed its best voyage 1874-1875, after reaching sydney in 73 days, but "fermopily" it reached Melbourne in 64 days: for it it again was possible to avoid the storm, into which, certainly, pleased "To katti Sark"!
The rivalry of two clippers remained the theme of discussions in the British ship peace. Old Willis continued to obstinate believe that the best ship belongs precisely to it, although for it thus far and it was impossible to find the same captain as Kembol. Tiptaft was too balanced and careful. It again accepted the load of tea in Ukhane, again conveyed oho into London 4 months and again lost To "fermopilam" (whole week!).
Exactly in the month on 21 November, 1875, it again swam off into sydney. In the "roaring fortieth" during six days "To katti Sark" nursed 2163 miles, i.e. it made in average 15 it was main. Left by week later rival completed passage into Australia Pa week earlier.
Speaking about the speeds, it is necessary to note that not one of the tea clippers could in the Australian races be pulled with such passenger clippers as famous "Lightning" or "James beyns", Pa of which in the accomodations of tween deck were equipped cabins. It goes without saying, this facilitated vessels. Numerous large clippers were in those years re-equipped for the high-speed passenger vessels: "champion of is dove-coloured", for example, once, nursing 465 miles between the midnight observations, showed the average speed of approximately 20 it was main; daily paths of those mentioned of "Lightning" and "James beynsa" frequently exceeded 400 miles. And nevertheless in 1885. "To katti Sark" passed from sydney to the English channel in 67 days, after losing to the had doubly larger displacement passenger "Lightning", which went from Melbournes to Liverpool, only 4 days! (for the tyazhelogruzhennogo vessel, which was being attempted to go with the following storm, there was always a specific risk to be "crushed" by the waves, which were rolled in to the deck. Certainly, in this case larger ship with the high above-water board occurred under the advantageous conditions!)
In 1876 Tiptaftu it nevertheless transported: after accepting tea in Ukhani, "To katti Sark" completed not bad passage, after reaching the cape start in 108 days, and even - at long last! - it passed "fermopily" (to the week, although the comparison of voyages and not it was convincing). The main thing was the fact that its freight was 4 pounds 5 shillings, whereas it was to the pound less in others! Old white hat it was for the first time extremely contented and even it allowed itself to leniently smile, when it became known that the steamship Of "glenartney" arrived with the tea from China only in... 42 days! It is worse than that: the same record time then showed "glenirn", and also whole dozens of others steam it was ship after it. Scale increasingly more it were inclined in favor of the smoking steamships.
Clipper began to take in China not tea, but silk; only eight of them could obtain the complete party of tea into the volume of 1876! Tea as load ended for the sail it was ship. It became ever more popular beverage, they reared increasingly its more, sold increasingly more cheaply, the rates of freight were reduced...
In 1877 for the last time "To katti Sark" obtained the load of tea, but in this case freight already hardly covered the cost of towing on the yangtze and the loss of two new anchors in the deep silt of river. Still without desiring to recognize defeat, Willis stated that this failure - matter of the case, and nevertheless again sent its best clipper by the beaten way.
In this voyage "To katti Sark" nearly proved to be on the terrible sand-bars of Goodwin. This occurred next day on the output from London, when the November storm unprecedented on the force was brought down to it. The hurricane squalls forced clipper to be covered in the refuge - on the raid near the lighthouse Downs, where has already been saved about two ten it was ship, which hardly were retained at the anchors. To the night the raid was full of the drifting ships, they were piled up one on top of the other, broke masts - mast and yards, they overturned. In the darkness light signals flickered, all coastal boat left on that night to save those suffering calamity...
Helpless "To katti Sark" several times encountered with the unknown vessel, with the heart-rending crack were brought down downward elegant yards and jib-booms. Tiptaft attempted was to place sail, but it here ripped canvas into the shreds. Bulwark was broken, much of the armament is torn and is taken away outside. The approached in the morning tug the "poppy Of gregor" rendered assistance clipper, after unrolling it against the wave. Then the second tug appeared, and then it was possible to lead the mutilated vessel into the thames.
Spasateli required for this from Willis 8000 pounds; however, law court found that it is completely sufficient and triply smaller sum. Several shipowners also began to require the compensation of losses, asserting that "To katti Sark" encountered with their vessels, but to give valid proofs no one of them not smog. (one of them unable was this to make only because torn away with the collision from onboard of clipper and fallen to the deck of its vessel name "To katti Sark" someone pushed into the water; many years later old ship carpenter acknowledged in his act!)
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