HISTORY OF CLIPPER "CUTTY SURK"
HAPPY ERROR OF THE OLD WHITE HAT
ON TO BRINK THE LOSSES
WOOLEN VOYAGES OF THE CAPTAIN OF WUDJET
Calculation of displacement to CUTTY SURK
Theoretical drawing of the clipper
Construction of the housing
Diagram of the general layout
Device of the clipper
Diagram of the wind-resistance area
ON TO BRINK THE LOSSES
Although in the first after repair voyage into Australia was gained the clean victory above "fermopilami" (Tiptaft it arrived into sydney on 72-1 days, and his rival in Melbourne - on 74-1), it is possible to say that for "Cutty Surk" began the strip of misfortunes. The harvest of tea into the volume of 1878 was very poor, everything they took away hateful steamships. During the monthly and completely useless expectation of load unexpectedly passed away captain tiptaft...
The crew of the clipper, accepted by new captain - Wallace, counted 28 experienced, fearless seamen. For the clipper this a little. However, "old Willis was convinced that reduction of expenditures - only method to survive in the unequal fight with the steamships. It reduced crew to 23 people, and then even to 19 and here, unexpectedly for itself, explained that on the new four-mast barges, which assume onboard doubly, and that three times as great load, than "Cutty Surk", the number of command also not p.pevyshayet 20 people... Assuming with the same command a larger quantity of load, they could "earn rather well" even with the proposed low ' rates of freight. They transported not only urgent "chosen loads", like the tea, but entire contract, including wheat, forest, fig, nitrates. These were: the vessels of plodder, and they gradually began to make that the fact that the steamships already made: to survive from the sea roads elegant of clipper.
Old Willis made one error for another, obstinate attempting to search for for "Cutty Surk" load in China, and "fermopily", after taking in Australia load ' fur, it transported it into England around the cape of Horn. So was opened "woolen" line.
Finally, after accepting jute and sugar in Manila, "Cutty Surk" in 111 days delivered load into New York. For the subsequent passage into London clipper were required 19 days. Apropos of this transatlantic voyage there were numerous disputes. Even version appeared with the interrogation of command, that the passage engaged only 10 days. That also to speak, the seamen never diminished merits their it was ship! (in 1952 one old man it obstinate asserted that with it was brought to reach on "Cutty Surk" from the English channel to Australia in 54 days, although a similar number never declared not by some captain of clipper!) Thus, the tea voyages of clippers left into the irretrievable past, themselves they dispersed along other lines (in particular, they arose to the trans-Pacific Ocean line), they began to work in the cabotage. Old white hat it fell by spirit. "Cutty Surk" interested increasingly its less, increasingly less means it released it to its content. Simultaneously it ordered to decrease its wind-resistance area and to remove spare spar trees. Thus it facilitated vessel and even somewhat improved its seaworthiness. Generally this lightening was simply necessary for the majority of clippers. On them they began to remove the uppermost of sail and topmast. Practically speed gain they gave extremely insignificant. But here their maintenance required real expenditures for the content of sailors; the additional stresses, which appear in the masts and the rigging with the bearing of upper sails in I any flay weather, they led to an increase in expenditures and expenditures of time for repair work... After this, "Cutty Surk" chartered under the transportation of coal for the American fleet, which patrols in the Chinese waters. After accepting - for the first time - the load of coal in itself on the native land in the port Of penard, clipper again left in the distant floating, which hardly did not end tragically.
Captain Wallace was charming person and not bad seaman, but I could not place its new Exec - the impudent person of Smith (the very same Anderson) on the place, it did not know how to forego the unprepossessing and weakwilled young second assistant sent to the clipper (to everything that was so shortsighted that from the halfpoop it could not examine, that it is created in the foremast), it did not consider that with this rabble, such as was the in a hurry collected crew "Cutty Surk", in no way could not be left in the sea on Friday. Now similar circumstances no one disturb, on in 1880 and still many years after this output on Friday it were considered as the worst sign. Was located experts, who predict all possible misfortunes. Situation on board was nervous; the carelessness of captain, roughness of Exec and helplessness of another assistant to several that contributed...
Once with the usual change of tack - turning of vessel Exec ordered to return foresail- tack from the spire on the forecastle. No one from the forecastle answered, order not was executed.
- watch, travi tack! - yelled Smith.
And again - neither answer nor performance, although the special clearness and the coordination of actions precisely was required at this moment. It is appropriate to recall that in those years the refusal to carry out order estimated as the beginning of mutiny, since insubordination with the work with the sails subjected to danger entire ship and the find on it people...
Exec by lightning flew to the forecastle and, after snatching out the handle of spire - vymbovku from the hands of the gaping herself sailor, it struck him the head. Sailor was killed. Commotion rose. When captain committed sequential error, whereas after allowing Exec on the first stand to run away from the vessel, command forewent the work.
Wallace was forced to continue way, having a watch the consisting of eight probationers and junior assistants. But on this of misfortune did not leave "Cutty Surk". In its Java Sea the calm took. Nerves in captain were stressed to the limit, it did not leave deck, aimlessly measuring with its steps. Calm seemed some supernatural, terrible; it visel above the sea, as if bad omen. On the fourth day of the sheerest calm in four mornings captain Wallace appeared on the deck in the strapnom state; he pensive stepped by foot to planshir', he suddenly took a step outside, yes so it did not appear more on the surface.
Command passed now to the second assistant. Crew began to persuade its news ship with the risen tailwind into Yokohama, but to it, apparently, it obtained neither experience nor determination. It poorly brought vessel to An'er-Kidola, it placed it on the anchor and began to dispatch telegram after the telegram into London. Willis, however, ordered to leave in the sea at any cost. Then one of the probationers decided to take command upon itself by ship. Remaining students began to fulfill the responsibilities of navigators. (it is worthwhile, perhaps, to focus attention, what these swum on the clipper on one-and-a-half - two years of youth to those times remained simply cheap labor: their parents still paid to the shipowner of money for the instruction!)
And again clipper they began to pursue calms, and it it once carried with the flow so close to the rocky rocks of island Suort-d3- Way, that the ends of the yards struck a match on the stone. The sailors hurried to scatter with the arrival into Singapore, so that "Cutty Surk" remained both without the commanders and without the command.
The undertaken by Willis (according to the completely irresponsible recommendation) new captain they called Brook. Probably for entire long life of clipper from there was the worst commander. Bigot and face he proved to be still and unclean to the hand by drunkard, by despot, who baked till ready all by petty cavils. The tragic fate of clipper frightened it, but most of all in the light, as it was explained, it feared any approach to the coast! It was not bad seaman, but approximation to a coast suggested to it panicky horror...
Unhappy ship walked from the port into the port, finding loads. From Calcutta was accepted the load of Indian tea on Melbourne. In Australia took coal for the Chinese ports. From there it left in the Philippines after the jute for New York (because of the "merits" of captain crew remained without the provisions of zadologo before it reached America coast). Old Willis, after expelling Bruka, fell into difficult situation. Ship was completely loaded by petroleum products and it had to go to Semarang (Java), on it stood, losing time because of the incomplete set of command. Finally Willis solved problem, after robbing another its vessel: from the clipper Of "blakkader", to which it happened at that time to stand in New York, transferred on "Cutty Surk" captain, Exec and the large part of the command.
<<< On the deck "Cutty Surk". In mainmast. In the foreground - hand winch, after the mast - pump
F. Moore, who has nothing in common with that Moore, who already commanded "Cutty Surk" earlier, found clipper in the lamentable state. Brook heated hands not only due to the rash savings of provisions, but also due to the scanty means, released to the content of ship. Sail and rigging they were the depressing spectacle. Serious repair was necessary, but Willis ordered expenditures to reduce and did not intend to give money Pa the replacement of sails. But meanwhile already proved to be paid of any kind port dues and even pilotage...
the "petroleum products boxed", accepted to the clipper, were nothing other than kerosene in the tin cans, placed on two in the box. Natural, to tightly pack these boxes in the hold, whose walls not were strictly vertical, but the bottom - horizontal, it did not succeed. On the tossing the boxes began to walk with piston, immediately zapakhlo by kerosene. The stronger the tossing was, the sharper became suffocating everywhere penetrating it smelled, there was presently the explicit threat of explosion. With the most dangerous load the ship crossed the Atlantic, went around the cape of good hope and, after passing entire Indian Ocean, finally it arrived in Semarang. Of course it sailed very for long. It could cover this distance considerably more rapid, if not it was so worn. In the ship periodical the alarming records are contained on this score: it is discussed the fact that the wind tore up the decrepit of sail, burst themselves tackle, that many agitations it was possible to avoid, relate crew and owner properly to the state of ship. Then "Cutty Surk" completed passage into India and was accepted here the exotic load of eastern goods, including palm-tree sugar and buyvolinye horns. Now ship smelled sweet by the smell of molasses - molasses, which shed transportable sugar. When it was necessary to pump out bilge water, that stupifying stood stink. However, this mixture on the basis of bilge water was used in a completely unexpected manner.
<<< In the wardroom "Cutty Surk"
Inventive probationers very successfully moved away from it paraffin film and traces of kerosene, intermixed treacle with the pounded in fat blocks and solemnly they bore to the galley, where they thrust strange stryapnyu into the plate. The growing organism required the rich food, by which they did not spoil on the sailboats. Pea soup, boiled salt horsemeat (as happy gain - piece of the salt of pork), and on Sundays the konservirovannoye meat, so appeared weekly dinner menu. To the breakfast they gave the liquid oat porridge, flavored by the weevils brought in the croup, while to supper - something, that resembled meal soup...
From the raid Of kakinady "Cutty Surk" reached to the thames of approximately four months. Simultaneously captain Moore brought it into order, so that up to the moment of mooring in the London docks (it went June 1883), appeared "Cutty Surk" sufficiently properly. For captain it was necessary to spend considerable eloquence in order to force owner to acquire canvas and ropes. Nevertheless and into the following voyage ship left by badly equipped. Willis seemed by the fallen spirit. For a long time he hoped that his ship will beat speed record in the Chinese tea trade. But now he understood that the dear clipper leaves from the game. "Cutty Surk" was carried out 14 years - "elderly" age for the sailboat, but most bad there was that to compete with the steamships and large sail vessels became impossibly. Old white hat it ceased to brag by its zealous marine jumper and it slowly began to even more uzhimat' expenditures.
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