hauberk and lamellar armor. X-XI the century
helmet with the the barmitsa. X century. X century
hauberk (schema of production)
armor is scaly. XI century
the splitting weapon
helmets. XI-XIII century
armors from the plates and the scale
warrior. XII century
hauberk. XII-XIII century
the chopping weapon
helmet with the half-mask and barmitsa. XII-XIII century
armor is lamellar. VIII the century
archer. XIII century
the impact weapon
armors. XIII-XIV century
arbalest. XIV century
the missile weapon
kolontar'. XIV century
baydana. XV century
kuyak. XVI century
swords and the sabre
yushman. XVI century
chaldar (horse attire). XVI century
archer. XVI century
tegilyay. XVI century
bakhterets and tarch. XVI century
zertsalo. XVII century
rynda. XVI-XVII century
ceremonial armors. XVII century
"Russian armors X-XVII centurys".
Science about the ancient Russian armament has the old tradition: it was conceived from the moment of finding in 1808 on the spot of famous Lipitskoy battle of 1216 of helmet and hauberk, possibly, that belonged to prince Yaroslav vsevolodovich. Historians specialists for the study of the ancient weapon of past century A.V. Viskovatov, E.E. Lentz, P.I. Savvaitov, N.E. Brandenburg attached big enough value to collection and classification of the objects of military equipment. They began interpretation and its terminology, which included the words both of European, and Asian origin. In our time the tradition of the study of military science and weapon of Russia (Ix-xvii century) successfully continued and deeply substantiated Soviet researchers A.V. artsikhovskiy, B.A. Rybakov, B.A. Kolchin, A.ј. Medvedev, M.G. Rabinovich, M.M. Denisova, N.V. Gordeev et al. They dedicated their transactions to the study of the means of protection and attack, to their production and propagation, after focusing attention on the methods of conducting the battle of old-Russian warriors. The evolution of weapon they correctly considered as the phenomenon, closely related to the economic base of society. The weapons matter concentrated in itself the best achievements of production and the creative efforts of many generations of Russian craftsmen. In a quantity of obtained and, preserved in the museum meetings armament - not less than 8000 objects (without considering many tips of arrows) - findings of medieval Russia have international scientific value.
Armament, the tactics of battle, entire system of military science concerning the IX on the XVII century passed a number of the stages of their development.
In IX-X centuries was formed, actually, the new complex of military equipment, which during those following was age-long it underwent gradual changes. Young state advanced numerous and, to a considerable degree, heavily armed army, equipped with all types offensive and of the protective agents of those days. The force-regiments, which were battling themselves in the organized battle formation, according to the specific tactical rules, appeared in the fields of battles.
In the initial life cycle of Kiev power military actions conducted, in essence, the infantry. Ever more significant pressure of the southern neighbors of Russia - nomads and formulation of the feudal organization of society bring in the middle and in second-half OF THE X century to the advancement to the foreground of the cavalry, subsequently which was subdivided into the light (archers) and heavily armed (kopeyshchikov). Principal weapon of rider - spear, bow and arrow, sword and sabre.
The growing predominance of the cavalry did not indicate, however, that infantry completely disappeared. In the equipment of infantrymen, also who were being frequently subdivided into the archers and kopeyshchikov, by especially popular there was the axe.
In the XII - to first half of the XIII century is sped up the rate of development of combat technology. The gradual loading of the armament of both the rider and the infantryman begins from the XII century. Appears helmet with the half-mask and the circular barmitsey, those completely shut face, massive long sabre, heavy sword with the long cross lines and sometimes by one-and-a-half handle. About strengthening of protective clothing testifies the method of ramming extended in the XII century by spear. The loading of equipment not was as significant as in West Europe, since it would make a Russian warrior clumsy and would convert him into the accurate target for the steppe nomad.
Strictly combat clothing, on the Old-Russian concepts, precisely, it - without the helmet - was called armor; late this term became to be called all protective equipment of soldier. Among the protection in combats of body to hauberk long time belonged indisputable superiority. It was used with X on the XVII century.
Besides hauberks, by Russia it was accepted, but to the XIII century did not predominate, protective clothing from the plates. Lamellar armor existed in Russia with the IX on the XV century, scaly - with the XIII on the XVII century. The last form of armor was characterized by special elasticity. In the same XIII century is extended a number of such, amplifying the protection of the body details as ponozhi, kneeguards, breast zertsal'nye plates, naruchi.
In 1237-1241 to Russia were brought down khan Baty's hordes. Achievement zatormozilo the development of the country, but did not choke the independence of Russian military science and, moreover, it contributed to its accelerated progress. Military changes in that time are characterized by strengthening the value of infantry, by growing application of means of distant battle - bows, of arbalests, catapults, by accelerated transformation of annulated protective clothing into the lamellar.
In second-half XIII-XIV centuries remains in many respects the ascending from the pre-Mongol period Pan-European line of the development of Russian armament. They appeared: the splitting sword, that more bent than by century earlier, sabre, is created the final system of setting armor, are extended triangular panel, axes-bulavy, shestopery, arbalests. Together with the helmet of traditional spheroconical form comes into use low dome-shaped topheader - helmet. The firearms appeared about 1380 in Russia. However, the traditional silent weapon of close and distant battle preserved its value. Peaks, boar-spears, helmets, armors, round shields, bulavy, bludgeons, shestopery and in the period of the use of firearms, for two hundred years, practically without the substantial changes remain in arsenal.
Nine centuries (with the IX on the XVII century) above the creation and improvement of shielding and offensive armament worked the master- gunsmiths of Russians it was municipal.
The diverse and perfect armament several contributed to military exploits and combat glory of Russian soldiers, during it was age-long defended freedom and independence of its native land. Unfortunately, the colorful publications, dedicated to Old-Russian armors and weapon, are rare. The attempt to fill this gap is set as its goal this complete set of postcards. Moscow artist Vladimir semenov, already known by his illustrations to the "word about the regiment of Igor", and also by series of the postcards, dedicated to the history of Moscow, turned himself this time to the Russian armor. In his works he seemingly revived the page of the past, after depicting Russian soldiers in the situation customary for them, in the colorful and reliable combat decoration.
Certainly, this work does not pretend to that so that it would be considered as scientific equipment or typological reference book, its task another - of showing as is wide as possible and are more diverse ancient Russian armors, to present that depictive material, which so it was missing to all facts, who loves Russian history and culture.
A. Kirpichnikov, the doctor of the historical sciences
"Russian armors X-XVII centurys".
Artist Vladimir Semenov.
© depictive skill ". Moscow. 1983